Is Time Linear?

early galaxies ejecting sreams of star globs from their coresFor several centuries the Greek philosophers searched for a first principle to serve as a foundation for a natural science. They understood that a system of knowledge is based on an elementary assumption. Plato wrote, “For when a man knows not his own first principle, and when the conclusion and intermediate steps are also constructed out of he knows not what, how can he imagine that such a fabric of convention can ever become science?” First principles are hard to think about because they are fundamental, unprovable, elementary assumptions.

The problem the Greek philosophers struggled with was the issue of change. The fact that changes occur is evident to the senses. Trees grow, planets move, water freezes, people age and die. What change IS – is not evident to the senses. One kind of change, change in quality, is particularly difficult because some sort of substratum continues. For example, we change with age but our underlying identity remains. The Greek philosophers used paired words for  changes in quality (generation and corruption) and (coming-to-be and passing-away).

The Greek atomists’ solution to the problem of change was that atoms (indivisible things) persisted even as everything made of atoms is wearing out with old age. They speculated that the indivisible things changed how they moved, which is why everything corrupts with age.

Modern physicists try to find elementary things with unalterable qualities, to explain the processes of nature. Yet they never question whether unchanging things actually exist. Scientists claim that the universe is 99% invisible, filled with vacuum spreading space-time and invisible matter. They do so because their historical, fundamental assumption is never in question. What foundational assumption? The Bible predicted science. In the last days, Peter wrote, mockers will come obfuscating the fact that the plural heavens (galaxies?) are out-old (ek palai) because they think that all things that exist remain the same. This prophecy has come true.

1. Scientists contrived their definitions of mass, energy and time with their notion that matter is intrinsically immutable.

2. They contrived most of their measuring units, physical “constants” and physics laws with their notion that atoms dither with perpetual motion.

The Bible is utterly unscientific. No one in the age of the biblical prophets had a scientific mindset. Yet we confirm the biblical version of creation and cosmic history because we see the past as it existed long ago. The Bible states that God created the plural heavens (the galaxies?) and the Earth first. The primordial earth was at that point without form, without extension in space. Then Elohim continued to command light to continue to be. Evidently matter was coming to be as a relation with light as God continued to command light to be, thus giving it extension and other properties.   Later Elohim continued to form the Sun, Moon and stars into things that spread (Hebrew raqiya).

We periodically observe bright flashes of gamma light arriving from the neighborhood of ancient galaxies. Perhaps some of these flashes are evidence for God commanding light to continue to be – thus energizing and giving form to matter.  At many ranges all over the universe, we observe that tiny,  naked galaxies  without starry arms grew as the stars continued to form and spread out from what is not seen in the galactic cores.  We observe how galactic shapes often grew into huge, local,  growth spirals. Not a single one of those ancient galaxies shines with the light frequencies of modern atoms. Even in our own galaxy we sometimes observe knotted jets emerging and expanding, forming huge dusty nebulae. Scientists have filled the universe up with undetectable, magical things (like black holes and vacuums that spread light) to prevent the visible history of the universe from being so.

He commands you to lift up your eyes and look at the plural heavens, the spreading place, where His glory is revealed. The left galaxy is HUDF 4491. A jet of blue star globs (like beads on a necklace) are emerging from the red core of this ancient galaxy. The central  galaxy is Hubble Ultra Deep Field 3130. The two arms of this galaxy are made of distinct clumps that shine at bluer colors than the core. The galaxy on the right is HUDF 5805 that also has distinct clumps in its emerging arms. The light from both these ancient galaxies shines at less than half the frequencies of modern atoms.

Scientifically minded creationists struggle with the evidence for the age of the universe. They desperately try to fit the universe to the western concept of linear clocks and clock-like orbits. Yet we can see that clocks and orbits have been accelerating throughout cosmic history. Look at the heavens with sight, instead of an assumption, and you will see how completely the Word of God will vanquish western science.